2% milk--Milk containing 2% milkfat by volume.
833 cure--A curing brine containing 8 pounds of salt, 3 pounds of sugar and 3 ounces of nitrite.
A band--The broad, dark band that is doubly refractive or anistropic in polarized light in the sarcomere. Contains the myosin filaments.
Acetylcholine--A compound secreted by the neuron where it is attached to the muscle at the neuromuscular junction. Acetylcholine causes the transfer of the nerve impulse from the neuron to the muscle.
Achilles tendon-- The tendon that is found in the hind limb of the beef animal that is used to suspend the beef carcass from the rail.
Actin--Myofibrillar protein and main component of the I-band or thin filament of the sarcomere. F-actin is made up of a series of the g-actin molecules that form a helical strand known as a thin filament.
Actomyosin--The protein complex formed when actin and myosin interact at the cross-bridge. At rigor-mortis this interaction is permanent.
Adjusted backfat thickness--The measure of subcutaneous fat thickness adjusted by the grader to take into account the fat deposition on the rest of the carcass.
Adductor--A muscle located in the hind limb of an animal which makes up part of the top round.
Aerobic metabolism--Metabolism in the presence of oxygen.
Aging--A process by which which meat is held under controlled temperatures for a period of time. This allows enzymatic activity to degrade complex proteins, changing flavor and tenderness.
Agricultural Marketing Service--Agency of the United States Department of Agriculture that has responsibility for developing and applying the federal meat and poultry grading systems.
Aitch bone--The portion of the pelvic bone that is exposed when a carcass is divided at the medial line.
Albumen--The portion of the egg which surrounds the yolk, sometimes referred to as the egg white; the major protein found in egg white.
Albumin--A group of protein that are found in milk.
Anaerobic metabolism--Metabolism in the absence of oxygen.
Ante-Mortem Inspection--Inspection of the an animal before death to determine healthiness.
Anterior--Sometimes known as "cranial", meaning toward the head.
Appendicular skeleton--The bones associated with the limbs of the animal.
Artery pumping--The process of distributing a curing solution throughout a ham using the circulatory system of the animal. The injection site is the femoral artery.
Ascorbate--A compound added to a curing mixture that hastens development and stability of the cured meat color. Four things that ascorbates do in a curing brine include: (1) taking part in the reduction of metmyoglobin to myoglobin, thereby accelerating the rate of curing; (2) reacting chemically with nitrite to increase the yield of nitric oxide from mitrous acid; (3) acting as an antioxidant, thereby stabilizing both color and flavor and (4) under certain conditions, reducing nitrosamine formation.
Atlas joint--The joint between the head and the first cervical vertebrae, which is severed to remove the head.
ATP--Adenosine triphosphate, a high-energy molecule that is the carrier of free energy used in animal systems.
Axial Skeleton--The bones in the carcass associated with the vertebrae.
Axis joint--The joint between the first and second cervical vertebrae.
Backfat thickness--Measurement of the amouont of the subcutaneous fat on a carcass.
Bacteria--Single celled organisms that reproduce by cell division may be either unintentional contaminants (spoilage or pathogenic organisms) of muscle foods or intentional additives such as the lactic acid starter cultures used in the manufacture of fermented products.
Bell scraper--A bell shaped device used to remove the hair from a hog carcass.
Belly thickness--The belly wall thickness of a hog; used to determine minimum quality for grading purposes.
Belly--A wholesale cut of a hog carcass which composes approximately 13 percent of the carcass. The belly is generally cured and sold as bacon.
Biceps femorisA muscle found in hind limb of the animal and composes the bottom round or outside round.
Biceps brachiiA muscle located in the arm roast or chop. Aproximately the same diameter as the humerus bone in which it is next to.
Binders and Extenders--Non-meat ingredients that are added to sausage products for one or more of the following reasons: (1) improve cooking yields, (2) improve slicing, (3) improve flavor, (4) reduce formulation costs, (5) increase protein content, (6) improve emulsion stability, (7) improve fat binding, (8) increase water binding.
Binder meats-- Meats used for sausage products that have the ability to bind water and emulsify fat in a sausage product. Meats with high binding ability have a lot of lean skeletal tissues whereas meats with a low binding ability are high in connective tissue and fat.
Blast freezing--The most commonly used commercial method for freezing meat products. Air is cooled to between -10C to -40C, then by blowers increased to an air velocity of 760 mph which causes the product to be frozen at a rapid rate. The meat products must be wrapped to protect from freezer burn.
Blood meal--Dried blood from the slaughtering process that can be used as a protein supplement (80 percent protein) in animal feeds
Blood splashing--The appearance of minute hemorrhages in the muscle, fat and connective tissue due to a transient rise in blood pressure at the time of slaughter. Particularly evident in pork that has been cured.
Bloom--Development of the bright color associated with the formation of oxymyoglobin on the lean surface of a cut of meat when exposed to oxygen. In beef this takes approximately 20 minutes. The color goes from a purplish red to a bright cherry red.
Boar odor--An distinctive odor associated with meat from intact adult male hogs. It is related to the presence of the compound 5 androst-16ene-3one, which is a metabolite of testosterone. It has been described as a urinelike, sweaty, aromatic odor that develops when boar fat is heated.
Bone sour--Sour or putrid odors found around the femur in a beef round or pork ham caused by anaerobic bacteria that may have been present in lymph nodes or bone joints, or may have gained entrance along bones during storage and processing.
Boston shoulder--A wholesale cut made by making a perpendicular cut through the thoracic vertebrae at the second and third rib, then cutting at right angles approximately 3/4 inch ventrally from the exposed surface of the scapula. This cut comprises about nine percent of the pork carcass.
Bound Water--Water that is in close association with the charged groups on a protein molecule, thereby being held tightly to the protein.
Bowl chopper (silent cutter)--A piece of equipment used in sausage making that consists a round bowl in which meat is placed that rotates so the meat is passed through a series of blades rotating at about 5000 rpm and is chopped into fine particles.
Boxed beef--Fabrication of the beef carcass into wholesale, primal and subprimal cuts at the plant. These cuts are trimmed of excess fat and possibly bones, then vacuum packaged and boxed by similar cut and shipped to retailers directly.
Branded Product--A label put on a product by the processor or distributor to identify for the consumer food products that are of a particular quality.
Braise-- To brown meat in a small amount of fat then cook slowly in a covered pan with a small amount of liquid.
Break joint--The epiphyseal cartilage at the distal end of metacarpal bones is used to classify carcasses as lamb.
Breaker--A worker in the a processing plant who separates the carcass into wholesale, primal and subprimal cuts.
Breast--A retail cut of chicken which is composed primarily of the pectoralis muscle; also the wholesale cut of lamb that includes the sternum and the pectoralis muscle.
Brine--The solution which contains the cure and water that is pumped into meat for curing.
Broil--To cook by direct heat. Grill
Broiler or fryer--A young chicken (usually 6-8 weeks of age) , either sex that is tender-meated with soft, pliable, smooth-textured skin and flexible breast-bone cartilage. The weight range for a broiler and fryer carcass is 3 - 4.5 pounds.
Bromelin--A degradative enzyme isolated from pineapple that will degrade muscle proteins. It can be used as a tenderizing agent and is most active at a temperature of 90 - 140F.
Browning--The process of the cooking the meat so the myoglobin pigment is converted to hemochrome, which can be characterized by the cooked meat color.
Bullock--A intact male beef animal that is less mature than a bull. Skeletal maturity distinguishes the difference between the two. Bullock carcasses have slight red and slightly soft chine bones, and the cartilage on the ends of the thoracic vertebrae have some evidence of ossification; the sacral vertebrae are completely fused; the cartilage on the ends of the lumbar vertebrae are nearly completely ossified; and the rib bones are slightly wide and slightly flat.
Butchers dollar--A round silver-dollar-sized piece of the femur that is cut when the loin and round wholesale cuts are separated.
Butterfly--To split steaks, chops, cutlets and roasts in half leaving halves hinged on one side.
Buttons--Refers to the cartilage located on the ends of the spinous processes of the thoracic vertebrae. The size of the button helps in determining the physiological maturity of beef carcasses.
Calcium pump--A series of the enzyme in the muscle fiber that is responsible for calcium in and out of the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
Calf skin--The classification for hide from immature beef animals.
Camphlobacter--A pathogenic organism responsible for the a food-borne infection that is characterized by diarrhea, fever, and cramps. Onset time is 2-5 days after ingestion of organisms and the duration is approximately 2-10 days.
Cape--The hide that is removed from the head of a beef animal.
Capon--A surgically unsexed male chicken under 8 months of age that is tender-meated with soft pliable, smooth textured skin.
Captive bolt pistol--A device used to render an animal senseless by shooting a steel rod into the brain.
Carcass--The dressed, slaughtered animal containing two "sides".
Cardiac muscle--Muscle that is striated and has involuntary nervous system control. The nucleus is located in the center of the muscle fiber. The muscle fiber exhibits rhythmic contractility and is found exclusively in the heart.
Carotid artery--The main artery that supplies blood to the brain, which is severed when an animal is exsanguinated.
Casein--A protein in milk which constitutes 80 percent of the total protein. Caseins are globular in shape and coagulate in the cheese-making process.
Cellulose casings--An inedible sausage casing made from cotton liner or wood pulp. Both water and air are able to pass through these casings. Since these casing are inedible they must be removed before the product is consumed.
Cervical vertebrae--The seven vertebrae located in the neck of an animal.
Cheddering--The cheese-making process in which the cheese curd is stretched and matted to remove the whey proteins.
Chine bone--The ventral portion of the lumbar vertebrae that is removed at the time of steak or chop fabrication.
Chitterlings--The small intestines of the hog.
Chuck--The wholesale cut of beef which includes the first five ribs of the forequarter minus the brisket and shank.
Churning--The process in butter making where the emulsion that has held the butter in solution is broken due to mechanical agitation. The butter is then pressed and the buttermilk is poured off.
Clarification--The centrifugation of milk to remove extraneous material including leukocytes, larger bacteria, cells from the cow's udder and dirt that may have entered the milking system.
Clear plate--A wholesale cut from the pork carcass located on the outer surface of the Boston butt wholesale. It is primarily fat and is used in making pork and beans.
Clostridium Botulinum--A rod-shaped spore-forming bacteria that produces a lethal toxin when grown in anaerobic conditions. A tiny amount absorbed will cause paralysis of the involuntary muscles such as the diaphragm leading to suffocation.
Clostridium Perfringens--A rod-shaped nonmotile spore-forming bacteria that causes gastroenteritis. The symptoms appear 8- 24 hours after ingestion and include acute abdominal pain, diarrhea and gas; fever, nausea and vomiting are rare.
Coagulation--To cause protein to denature and form large globules as in cheese-making.
Coccygeal vertebrae--Vertebrae found in the tail of an animal.
Cock or rooster--A mature male chicken with coarse skin, toughened and darkened meat, and hardened breastbone tip.
Cod fat--Fat that has been deposited in the remaining portion of the scrotum of the a steer.
Cold shortening--A condition caused when muscles are exposed to cold temperatures (15 - 20C below normal) while the muscle is in the pre-rigor state, causing the muscle to shorten and toughen the meat.
Collagen-- Main structural protein of vertebrate animals, occurring in all tissues; it is a precursor to gelatin and can be processed into a variety of forms; predominant fibril forming protein of the connective tissue or stomal portion of muscle.
Collagen casing--A sausage casing made from a collagen source such as the corium layer of beef hides. These casing have many of the physical properties of natural casings and the uniformity and cleanliness of cellulose casings.
Color score--A subjective measure of the lean meat color in pork. On a sclae of 1-5, 1 indicates a pale pinkish color and 5 indicates a dark purplish color.
Colostrum--The clear liquid secreted from the udder of cows shortly after the birth of a calf that contains the antibodies to protect the calf from disease. Colostrum is excluded from the commercial milk supply.
Comitrol (flaking equipment)--A machine that slices or flakes meat into a desired size which then can be formed into a restructured meat product.
Condensed milk--Fluid milk with water removed so it contains 7.5 percent fat and 25 percent milk solids. It can be sweetened by adding 18 percent sugar. It is canned and stable at room temperatures.
Conformation--The proportionate development of carcass parts or wholesale cuts, and the ratio of muscle to bone.
Connective tissue-- Forms cellular structure of most animal tissues including bone, fat, and muscle. The two major proteins are collagen and elastin.
Contraction--The process of shortening a muscle fiber.
Cooler shrink--The weight that is lost during the initial chilling of the carcass. This is generally moisture loss.
Cornish game hen--A young immature chicken, usually five to seven weeks of age, weighing not more than two pounds ready-to-cook weight. These birds are a cross between a Cornish chicken and another breed of chicken.
Cracked eggs--Eggs that may have some imperfection in the shell and are used in further processing of egg products.
Cryogenic freezing--Freezing of food products by immersing them in liquid nitrogen.
Curare--A compound isolated from a South American plant that has the ability to block the transfer of a nerve impulse at the neuromuscular junction.
Cure--A mixture of the ingredients used in meat curing which may include salt, sugar, sodium nitrite, sodium erythorbate, phosphate, spices and water
Curing--Adding salt to meat for the purpose of preservation.
Custom Exempt--The inspection status of a meat packing plant that slaughters animals as a service and does not sell any meat products.
Cutting test--Cutting of the wholesale cut into retail cuts to determine the retail yield and value for the purpose of maintaining operating margins.
Dark cutter--Beef with lean tissue that is dark in color. It is the result of long term stress that has reduced the glycogen content in muscle prior to slaughter, The muscle pH of a dark cutter is generally high (approx. 6.5) which results in higher water-holding capacity and more light absorbency than normal thus causing a dark lean color.
Debraining--A process of rendering poultry senseless at the time of slaughter.
Dehairing machine--A machine with rotating rubber paddles that removes the hair from a scalded hog carcass.
Dehydration--Removal of water.
Delaney clause--Section of the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1959 requiring that foods be free of residues of pesticides or other compounds found to cause cancer in experimental animals
Delay phase of rigor--A phase during the rigor process in which ATP is present in the muscle, maintaining a state of relaxation.
Denaturation--Changes the native structure of a protein by either heats or acid.
Depilatating--The process of removing hair from a hog carcass during slaughter.
Dew claw remover--A hook shaped device that is used to remove the dew claws from a hog at the time of slaughter.
DFD-- Dark Firm and Dry--A condition in meat where the pH declines slightly to pH 6.8 and the meat is darker in color, firmer in texture, and drier in appearance. This condition is caused by long term stress of sufficient duration to deplete glycogen stores in muscle prior to slaughter.
Diaphragm--A muscle and connective structure that separates the abdominal and thoracic cavity.
Diffusion--The process whereby particles of liquid , gasses or solids intermingle as the result of spontaneous movement caused by thermal agitation and dissolved substances move from a region of higher to one of lower concentration.
Distal-- Away from the point of reference.
Dorsal (superior)--Away from the plane of support. "Top side".
Dressing percent--The percentage of the live animal weight which is the carcass. It is determined by dividing the hot-carcass-weight by the live animal weight then multiplying by 100. Also referred to as yield.
Dry heat cookery--The cooking of meat without presence of additional moisture. Examples of the such methods are roasting, broiling, grilling, panbroiling, panfrying, stirfry and deep fat frying.
Dry cure--The application of a curing mixture of salt, sugar, sodium nitrite, erythorbate and spices by rubbing them on the product to be cured. Generally only used on thin meat cuts.
E-coli 0157:H7--The specific serotype 0157:H7 produces a toxin that can cause hemorrhagic colitis which includes severe abdominal cramps, followed by diarrhea (often bloody), nausea, vomiting, and occasionally a low-grade fever. A possible complication is hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), a urinary tract infection that is a leading cause of acute kidney failure in children. Symptoms generally begin three to four days after the food is eaten, lasting up to 10 days.
Edible by-products--Portions of the animal other than the carcass that are suitable for human consumption.
Egg products--Food and non-food products derived from eggs.
Electrical stunner--A device that delivers an electrical charge to a hog to render it senseless at the time of slaughter.
Electrical stimulation--A process in which a pre-rigor carcass is electrically shocked to cause the muscle to contract.
Elastin--Rubberlike connective tissue protein noted for its elasticity and extreme insolubility.
Emulsion mill--A piece of the machinery used in sausage production in which the chopped meat batter is passed through a plate containing small holes to create a stable meat batter for products such as frankfurters and bologna.
Endomysium --Connective tissue surrounding each muscle fiber overlying basement membrane.
Epimysium-- Connective tissue sheath surrounding muscle; is contiguous with tendon and perimysium.
Erythorbates-- Isomers of ascorbates, erthyorbates hasten the development and stability of the cured meat color. Additional information about this group of compounds can be found under ascorbates.
Essential nutrient--A nutrient that cannot be produced in the body in sufficient amount, therefore must be supplied by the diet.
Exsanguination --Bleeding the animal at the time of slaughter.
Evaporated milk--Milk that has had water removed so that it constitutes 7.5% milk fat and 25% total milk solids.
Evisceration--Removal of the internal organs from the animal at the time of slaughter.
Exponential phase--The phase during bacterial growth where the microorganism numbers are doubling at each generation.
Farmers joint-The rough joint found in the front leg of a beef animal from which the front hoof can be removed. This is not the ideal place of removal.
Fat translocation--A process in which lipid from fat diffuses into the lean portion of the meat during the cooking process.
Fat thickness--Refers to the thickness of subcutaneous fat.
Fatty acids--A series of carbon atoms linked together in a hydrocarbon chain with an acidic carboxyl group at one end of the chain. Most fatty acids have an even number of carbon atoms.
Feathering--The amount fat streaks through the intercostal muscle. Is another estimate of the intramuscular fat deposition, i.e. marbling.
Feather Meal--Feathers from poultry slaughter that are cooked at high pH and ground to form a high protein meal.
Federal Meat Grading Act--An act of Congress passed on Feb 10, 1925, that established the USDA Meat Grading Service.
Fell Membrane--The inner layer of skin left on a lamb carcass after the pelt has been removed.
Femur--The long bone in the hind leg that articulates with the pelvic bone and the tibia and fibula.
Fermentation--The addition of a specific microorganism to a meat or dairy product for the production of lactic acid and other chemicals to give the product a distinctive aroma, flavor and texture.
Fiery carcass--A condition in which an animal has been excited shortly before slaughter so when the animal is bled, blood is trapped in the capillaries of the subcutaneous fat, resulting in a pink tinged carcass.
Filler meats--Meats that contain connective tissue which does not contribute to the fat stabilizing ability and overall structure of the cooked sausage. Examples of the these meats are tripe, lips, stomachs, and snouts.
Finish--The amount of subcutaneous fat on an animal.
Fisting--Removing the pelt from a lamb carcass by using a fist to separate the pelt from the fell membrane.
Flank--The abdominal wall of an animal or carcass; is a wholesale cut of a beef carcass.
Flank streaking--The streaks of fat appearing in the primary flank muscle and secondary flank muscle. Used to determine lamb carcass grading.
Flat joint--A joint in the front leg of cattle that is flat and is served to remove the front hoof.
Fleshing--The thickness of the muscling covering over the back, breast, drumstick, and thigh of a chicken carcass. Considered in poultry grading.
Fluid milk--Milk without any water removed.
Food-borne intoxication--Consumption of a food that contains a toxin or poison. The toxin can be of bacterial origin, such as C botulinum, S. Aureus and Bacillus Cereus.
Food-borne infection--Consumption of a food that is contaminated with viable organisms capable of colonizing the host's gastrointestinal tract or being transported across the intestinal lining. Microorganisms responsible for food borne infections include human enteric viruses, Salmonella, Campylobacter, C. Perfringens, L Moncytogenes, Y Enterocolitica, Shigella and various parasites.
Fore shank--The portion of the front leg of the animal containing the radius and ulna.
Fore-saddle--The portion of the lamb carcass anterior to the 12th rib.
Formulation--Determination of the specific ingredients and their respective amounts that will be included in a sausage product.
Free water--Water held in meat by weak surface forces and membrane. Constitutes about 80 percent of the meat.
Freeze drying--The process of freezing meat and then lowering the atmospheric pressure so the water is removed by sublimation.
Fry-- To cook in fat or oil. Applied especially (1) to cooking in a small amount of fat, also called panfrying; and (2) to cooking in a deep layer of fat also called deep-fat frying.
Food Safety and Inspection Service FSIS--The USDA agency responsible for federal meat inspection.
Fully cooked--A meat product cooked to an internal temperature of 165F.
Gambrel--A metal bar placed between the hind legs of a hog carcass to separate the legs and suspend the carcass.
Gelatin--The substance formed when collagen is heated in the presence of moisture.
Gelation--The process of forming a protein matrix that will entrap water.
Glycerine--A three carbon molecule to which fatty acids are attached to form triglycerides. Is isolated from fats during by-product processing.
Glycogen--Polysaccharide of glucose found in the muscle and liver of living animals.
Gracilis--A muscle that is on the outside surface of the inside top round, commonly referred to as the cap muscle.
Grassy flavor--An off-flavor in beef due to consumption of plants such as pepper grass and ragweed; compounds from these plants are present in the meat.
Greases--Rendered fat with a melting point lower than 40°C.
Green and drying room--A room in which the humidity and temperature are controlled for the fermentation process.
Grinder--A machine that reduces particle size of meat by passing it through a plate with holes of a specific diameter.
HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point)--A systematic approach to identification of potential food safety hazards, assessing the risk and setting up controls and procedures to prevent problems.
Ham--The wholesale cut of a pork carcass that includes the posterior portion from 1 inch anterior to the aitch bone.
Hanging tender-- The portion of the diaphragm muscle that is attached to the back region of the last rib.
Hardwoods--Woods containing a limited amount of resin such as hickory, oak, cherry , apple, beech, and maple, that are burned to produce smoke for flavoring smoked meat products.
Heat ring --The cold shortening of the outside edges of rib-eye muscle which causes a darkened and sunken appearance.
Hemichrome--A brown, sometimes gray pigment in which the myoglobin has been heated and the globin molecule denatured. The iron is oxidized (Fe+3). This is the major pigment that contributes to cooked meat color.
Hemochrome--A dull, red pigment in which the myoglobin has been heated and the globin part of the molecule has been denatured. The iron is reduced (Fe+2). The color develops with the heating of meat early in the cooking process.
Hemoglobin--A red, iron-containing protein in blood. Its function is to transport oxygen from the lungs, through the vascular system, to the cells where the oxygen is transferred into the cell.
Hide puller--A device used to remove the hide by attaching a chain to the hide and pulling it either up or down away from the carcass.
Hide--The outside covering of a beef animal.
High temperature aging--Maintaining the pre-rigor carcass at a temperature above 38F so cold-shortening does not occur.
Hind-saddle---The portion of the lamb carcass posterior to the 13th rib.
Homogenization--Reducing to small particles of uniform size and even distribution. An example is breaking fat globules in milk into very fine particles by forcing them through minute openings.
Hot carcass weight--The weight of the carcass immediately after slaughter.
Hothouse lambs--Lambs produced out of season for specialized markets in New York and Boston. The lambs are born in the fall or early winter months and are ready for market in 6 -12 weeks . They are housed in a confinement building to protect them from the weather.
Humerus--The long bone in the shoulder that articulates with the scapula on one end and the radius and ulna on the other end. It is found in arm bone roasts and chops.
I band--The light band in muscle which is bisected by the Z-line and is singly refractive when viewed with polarized light; it is described as being isotropic.
Immobilized water--Water molecules that are farther from the polar protein molecules than bound water so the bond is successively weaker.
Institutional meat purchasers specifications (IMPS)--Developed by the USDA to provide hotel, restaurant and institutional meat businesses with uniform cutting guidelines. Each product described has an IMP's designated number along with a product name.
Inedible byproducts--Components of the animal that can not be consumed by humans.
Inoculation--The introduction of a microorganism into a meat product.
Inspection legend--The ink stamp placed on the carcass after it has passed inspection.
Intercostal muscle--The muscle located between the ribs.
Intermittent power rail--An overhead rail system that transports carcasses from station to station during the slaughter process. The carcasses can be moved to a side rail until the task at a given station is completed.
Irradiation--A method of preservation in which the product is exposed to either x-ray or gamma radiation to kill microorganisms and preserve the product.
Jowl--A wholesale cut of the pork carcass which includes the cheek muscle and fat skin surrounding it .
Jugular vein--The principle vein draining the brain which is severed when the animal is exsanguinated.
Kidney heart and pelvic fat (KHP)--The internal fat surrounding the heart and kidneys and in the pelvic area.
Kosher--Meat from animals slaughtered under Rabbinical supervision
Lactic Acid--A three carbon organic acid produced during anaerobic metabolism in muscle. Accumulation of this acid is the cause for the drop in pH at the time of rigor-mortis. Lactic acid is also produced by some bacteria which are used in the manufacture of fermented sausage products.
Lactose--The primary carbohydrate found in milk. Represents 4.6% of the milk volume
Lag phase--The phase in microbial growth where bacteria are adjusting to the environment and not actively dividing.
Lamb--A male or female ovine younger that 14 months. A lamb carcass has two break joints.
Lard--Rendered fat from a hog.
Lateral --Away from the center of the animal.
Leaf fat--The abdominal and kidney fat in a hog carcass that is removed at the time of slaughter.
Leather--A hide that has been cured and tanned.
Leg--A wholesale cut of the lamb carcass which includes the hind and sirloin regions.
Lipid oxidation --A chemical reaction involving unsaturated lipids with oxygen to yield hydro peroxides; degradation of the hydro peroxides yields a variety of products including alkanols, alkenols, hydroxyalkenols, ketones, alkenes, etc.
Liquid eggs--Eggs that have been removed from the shell and packaged in bulk containers for ease in usage. The egg can be separated into yolks and whites or sold as whole egg.
Listeria Monocytogenes--A foodborne pathogen which causes disease symptoms in adults that include the sudden onset of flulike symptoms such as fever, chills, headache, backache, and sometimes abdominal pain and diarrhea. Symptoms in newborns include respiratory distress, refusal to drink, and vomiting. Listeria bacteria can grow slowly at refrigeration temperatures and can also grow in packages with little or no oxygen.
Loin--A wholesale cut of a beef , pork or lamb carcass. Generally is the retail cut of most value.
Longissimus muscle--A muscle on the dorsal side of the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. Is commonly referred to as the loin-eye or rib-eye muscle.
Lumbar vertebrae--Six vertebrae located in the abdominal region, posterior to the thoracic vertebrae and anterior to the sacral vertebrae. They are characterized by long transverse processes and short spinous processes.
M line--A dark band that bisects the A-band in muscle.
Marbling--Intramuscular fat of the rib-eye; used in determining yield grade.
Maturity--A measure of the age of the animal.
Meat packers--A company that slaughters animals for meat. The name is derived from the fact that originally this process involved "packing" meat in barrels with salt for shipment.
Meat Inspection Act--An act of Congress passed on June 30, 1906, establishing the federal meat inspection service.
Meat --The flesh of animals used as food.
Medial --Closest to the center of the animal.
Medium--Meat cooked to an internal temperature of 160° (70°C)
Metmyoglobin--The chemical state of myoglobin in which the iron has been oxidized (Fe3+) and the color is a brownish gray.
Mixer and blender--A machine used to mix sausage ingredient together.
Moist heat cookery--Cooking meat with additional moisture. Example of moist heat cookery are stewing, braising, cooking in liquid (i.e soups), pressure cooking and crock pot cooking
Molds--Multicellular organisms characterized by a tangled, fuzzy mass of growth (mycelium). Molds are slow growing so that are not very competitive with bacteria. Once a meat product has been dried such as dried fermented sausage or jerky then mold growth will occur.
Monounsaturated fatty acid--A fatty acid with only one double bond in the carbon chain.
Moving top evisceration table--A machine that consists of a conveyor belt that has trays attached which is moving at the same rate the carcass is on the rail so that carcass can be eviscerated with slowing the slaughter line down.
Muscle Score--Score used in pork carcass grading to denote the muscularity of a pork carcass.
Mutton--A ovine carcass generally older than 15 months and has two spool joints instead of break joints.
Myo -- Derived from the Greek word mys, meaning muscle.
Myofibrillar proteins --Proteins that are extracted by salt solutions, commonly referred to as salt soluble proteins. These proteins are generally associated with the myofibrillar structure.
Myofibrils --Long rod-like (70-80% of volume) organelle of the muscle cell, composed of sarcomeres held in register laterally and longitudinally; the main component of the muscle fiber that constitutes the contractile apparatus.
Myofilaments --Main protein filaments of sarcomere, consisting mostly of actin (thin filament) or myosin (thick filament).
Myoglobin --A red iron-containing protein found in muscle that is similar to hemoglobin in the blood but only one-fourth as large. Its function is to receive oxygen from hemoglobin and deliver it to the electron transport system. The iron present in myoglobin is in the ferric state (2+) and the is not oxygenated.
Myosin --Major myofibrillar protein and predominant salt-soluble muscle protein that comprises 50-60% of the myofibrillar contractile proteins; it is the main component of the A-band or thick filament of the sarcomere and has a molecular weight of 475,000 D.
National Association of Meat Purveyors (NAMPs)--An organization that has established guideline for primal and subprimal meat cuts that can be used in purchasing meat product for the hotel, restaurant, and institutional trade
Natural casing--Sausage casings that come from the intestinal tract of the slaughter animals.
Neatsfoot oil--A pale yellow oil extracted from bones of cattle and used as a leather dressing
Nerve impulse--The movement of an action potential down a nerve fiber to a muscle to signal the contraction process.
Neuromuscular junction --The location in which the nerve fiber attaches to the muscle fiber.
Nitrate--The compound NO3; the sodium salt is used in the dry curing of some meat products.
Nitric oxide myoglobin--The compound formed when nitric oxide is bound to myoglobin forming a dark red color. This pigment is found in meat that has been cured by not heat treated.
Nitrite--The compound N02; the sodium salt is added to curing mixture to form the cured pink color and to inhibit C botulinum growth.
Nitrosyl hemochrome--The pigment that formed when nitrite has been added to myoglobin and heated. The pigment that is found in cured meat products.
Non fat dry milk (NDFM)--Fluid milk that has all the fat and moisture removed. Can be used in sausage production.
No roll-- Refers to beef carcassses and cuts which have not been offically graded and roller branded by USDA. The quality is usually lower than USDA choice.
Onset phase of rigor--The phase of rigor in which the muscle is losing it elastic ability. This is caused be a reduction in ATP in the muscle.
Ossification--The calcification of the cartilage to form bone.
Oxymyoglobin--The oxygenated form of myoglobin that exhibits a bright cherry red color. The iron in the heme ring is in a reduced form.
Panbroil-- To cook uncovered in a frying pan. The fat is poured off as it accumulates.
Panfry--To cook in a small amount of fat
Papain--A degradative enzyme isolated from the tropical fruit papaya that will degrade protein in muscle and improve meat tenderness.
Pastern joint--The joint which is severed to removed the hind hoof of a lamb during slaughter.
Pasteurization--The heat process that results in the destruction of all pathogenic organisms. Spores and some thermoresistant spoilage organism may survive thereby requiring refrigeration to maintain wholesomeness..
Patella--Knee Cap. The small bone the cover the joint of the femur and tibula and fibula.
Paunch--The abdominal contents of cattle that are removed at the time of slaughter.
Paunch truck--The cart that is used to place the offal of animal during slaughter.
Peeler--A machine that is used to removed the edible cellulose casing from hotdogs.
Pelt--The outside cover of a lamb that removed at the time of slaughter.
Pelvis--The flat bone found in the hind limb of the animal composed of the three bones, ilium ischium and pubis that have been fused. It primarily found in the meat cuts from the sirloin area.
Pencil shrink--A calculation used by packers to take into account the gut fill in cattle at the time of slaughter. Generally in the range of 4 percent
Per capita disappearance--The amount of the meat that is consumed per person.
Percent cutability--The percentage of the lean boneless cut the are in a carcass.
Percent Muscling--The percentage of muscle in a carcass.
Perimysium--Intramuscular connective tissue surrounding primary and secondary bundles of muscle fibers.
PFF--Protein fat free. Refers to a formula used by USDA to calculate the amount of added moisture in cured meat products
pH--The negative log of the hydrogen ion concentration on a scale of one to fourteen. A measure of acidity of basicity with high value being more basic and a low value being more acidic.
Phosphates--A ingredient added at about .8 percent to a cure mixture to increase the water holding capacity of the meat product.
Picking--The process of removing feather from poultry during slaughter
Picnic--A wholesale cut in the pork carcass that includes the front leg, sternum and surrounding muscles.
Pinfeathers--A feather not fully developed that is either protruding or non-protruding, that is not removed will result in a lower quality grade.
Pizzle eye--The small piece of connective tissue that form the attachment of the penis to the body at the posterior portion of the aitch bone.
Plate--A wholesale cut of the beef carcass that include ribs 6 through 12. The retail cuts of the short rib and skirt originate from this wholesale cut.
Plate freezing--A method of freezing were the meat product is placed directly on metal plates that have been cooled to 14F to -22F. This method works best with thin cuts
Pluck--The organs of the thoracic cavity which include the heart, lungs and trachea.
Pneumatic clippers--Clippers that are powered by air pressure used to front the fore hoof of the beef cattle during slaughter.
Post-Mortem Inspection--Inspection of the internal organs and carcass after the animal has been slaughtered to determine wholesomeness.
Posterior--Sometimes known as the "caudal" meaning away from the head.
Poultry Inspection Act-- An act of Congress in 1957 that established inspection standard for poultry similar those established for other meat products under the Meat Inspection Act of 1906.
Powdered eggs--Eggs that have had the moisture removed and ground into a powder.
Pre-blending--The addition of salt and nitrite to ground meat serval hour or day prior to sausage manufacture to help extract protein help in managing inventory
Pre-cooked--Meat cuts which have been fully cooked and require only reheating to serve.
Preliminary yield grade--A yield initially assigned to a beef carcass as determined by the estimated by the adjusted backfat thickness over the rib-eye area.
Primal cut--A wholesale cut that has been trimmed to a specific dimensions and fat thickness.
Processor--A person or company that adds value to the product by altering it mechanically, chemically or adding other ingredient to it.
Proximal--Nearest the point of reference.
PSE--Pale Soft and Exudative. A condition generally found in pork in which the meat is pale in color, soft in texture and exhibit a loss in fluids (i.e exudative). This is caused by unusually high temperatures, rapid glycolysis causing a rapid pH drop, and an early onset of rigor mortis in muscle. It is most frequently found in muscles from pigs that are genetically stress susceptible (i.e. PSS).
Psoas major--The muscle locate along the ventral side of the lumbar vertebrae, commonly referred to and the tenderloin.
PSS--Porcine Stress Syndrome. A genetic condition in swine in which the animal is reaction adversely to stress. Animal that exhibit high stress susceptibility experience heart stroke, shock, and circulatory collapse. Animals that may have PSS may also have externa signs such as extreme muscling, anxious behavior , muscle tremors and reddening of the skin.
Purge --The juices exuded from fresh, cooked and cured meats efter they are packaged and remain in the package at the time of opening
Purveyor--A individual or company that sales meat to the restaurants, hotel and institutions.
Quadriceps --The muscles, vastus lateralis. vastus intermedius, vastus medialis and rectus femoris. These muscle compose the sirloin tip.
Quality Grades--Each grade denotes a specific level of quality as determined by the UADA
Radius--The small long bone in the foreshank of the an animal.
Rare--Meat cooked to an internal temperature of 140F (60C).
RDA--Recommended Dietary Allowances. Guideline for the amount of nutrients that are required by 97.5 percent of the population.
Refrigeration--The preservation method of the chilling meat to a temperature of 32F - 40F.
Restraining chute for stunning--The device that restraining the animal so that it can be stunned at the time of slaughter.
Retail cuts--Cuts of meat that are sold in a retail market
Retail weight basis--The amount of the meat that is sold or consumed based on the weight of the retail cuts.
Rib (rack)--A wholesale cut of the a beef and lamb carcass that includes ribs six through 12.
Rib eye area (REA)--The area of the longissimus muscle that is exposed when the a beef carcass is ribbed between the 12th and 13th rib.
Riboflavin--A water soluble vitamin (Vit B2) that assist in the metabolism of the carbohydrates and fats. The best source of the riboflavin in the diet is organ meats, milk and green leafy vegetables.
Rigor-mortis --Stiffness at death. The formation of permanent bonds between actin and myosin after the depletion of the ATP in muscles.
Roaster chicken--A young chicken (usually 3- 5 months of age) of either sex, that is tender-meated with soft, pliable, smooth-textured skin and breast-bone cartilage that is somewhat less flexible than that of a broiler or fryer.
Round--A wholesale cut of a beef carcass which includes the posterior portion of the carcass from 2 inches anterior to the aitch bone.
Sacral vertebrae--The five vertebrae located in the pelvic region, posterior to the lumbar vertebrae and anterior to the coccygeal vertebrae. These vertebrae fuse as the animal gets older to form the sacrum.
Salimeter--A hydrometer for indicating the percentage of the salt in a solution
Salinity--The measure of the amount of the salt in a solution
Salomonella--Consumption of live Salmonella bacteria can result in the foodborne infection, Salmonellosis. Symptoms include stomach pain, diarrhea, nausea, chills, fever and headache that normally appear six to 48 hours after eating a contaminated food. The illness may last three to five days and affects infants, young children, elderly, and immunocompromised individuals (patients on drug therapy, elderly, young) more severely. Salmonella bacteria are normal microflora of many animals and poultry. Unpasteurized milk can also contain this bacteria.
Sarco--Derived from the Greek words sarx or sarkos which mean flesh.
Sarcolemma --The thin transparent membrane surrounding the muscle fiber. Analogous to the cell membrane.
Sarcomere --Basic repeating contractile structural unit of the myofibril; in-register laterally and longitudinally and responsible for striated appearance of skeletal muscle.
Sarcoplasm--Cytoplasm of muscle cell; major water depot of muscle cell containing soluble proteins.
Sarcoplasmic proteins--Proteins that are readily extracted in aqueous solutions. Generally these protein are associated with the sarcoplasm.
Sarcoplasmic reticulum--A specialized form of endoplasmic reticulum in myofibers. This membrane system surrounding myofibrils is responsible for storing, releasing, and resequestering calcium in response to an action potential.
Sasuage truck--A cart that is used to place sausage, ham or other process meat products on that is rolled into the smokehouse to be heat processed
Saturated fatty acids--Fatty acids in which each carbon atom has at least two hydrogen atom bound to it and there are no double bonds between any of the carbon atoms.
Saute'--A method of cooking meat in a skillet or pan while in the presence of a small amount of cooking oil. Meat pieces should be tender and cut very thin because cooking time is short.
Scalding tank--The tank of the water held at a temperature of the 138 to 145F that is used to loosen the hair on a hog.
Scalding--The process of dripping a hog or chicken in hor water to loosen the hair or feathers respectively.
Scapula--A flat bone that articulating withe the humerus and is found in the forequarter of the animal. Commonly referred to as the blade bone
Sear--To brown surface of meat by short application of intense heat.
Seedy belly--A pork belly that has been cured which some of the mammary tissue present. This mammary tissue turn dark when cured and cooked making the bacon unappetizing.
Semimembranosus--The major muscle of the round subprimal cut
Semitendinosus--Muscle which makes up the eye round.
Setting (cheese making)--
Shear deformation curve--The graph generated when the a piece of the meat is sheered by a Warner-Bratszler sheering device. The height the peak is the amount of the force required to sheer through a piece of the meat
Shell eggs--Egg that are sold in the retail market that are still in the shell.
Shoulder clod--A subprimal cut that is made up of the large outside muscle system, infrapinatus and a portion of the tricep brachii, which lies posterior to the elbow joint and ventral to the medial ridge of the blade bone.
Shoulder stick--A condition when the animal is bled the knife is off center and is on the lateral side of the ribcage. This will cause blood to collect in the meat of the this area and must be trimmed before the should cuts can be sold.
Shoulder--A wholesale cut in a pork carcass that includes the anterior portion of the carcass when cut perpendicular to the thoracic vertebrae between the second and third rib.
Shrink-- Refers to the weight loss from animals, meat/meat products which may occur throughout the product's life.
Shrink wrap--Using plastic self-adhering wrapping material to tightly conform to the shape of meat
Shroud--A cloth that has been soaked in chlorinated water the wrapped around a carcass to smooth the fat, remove the blood and reduce cooler shrink.
Siding--Removal of the hide from the sides of a beef animal.
Simmer--To cook in liquid at a temperature of approximately 185F. Bubbles form slowly and break below the surface.
Singeing The process of removing hair on a hog carcass by burning it off.
Sirloin--A wholesale cut that include the pelvic bone and the associated muscles.
Skeletal muscle--Muscle that is striated and are attached directly of indirectly to bones. This muscle generally has voluntary nervous system control.
Skinning knife--A knife with a large rounded blade and a dull point that is used in hide removal.
Slaughter animal classes--The various classes of animals that are slaughtered. These include
Smoke house--A large oven that is used to heat process meat products in which smoke and can be introduced and humidity can be controlled.
Smooth muscle--Muscle that is non-striated and has involuntary nervous system control. It is found in walls of arteries and lymph vessels, and in the gastrointestinal tract and reproductive tract.
Soap--The product produced from the saponification of fat with alkali. The reaction occurs when the glycerine is separated from the fatty acids in the triglyceride structure, and the fatty acids combine with the sodium and potassium to form soap.
Soy flour--Finely ground treated soybean that contain about 50 percent protein and are used to boost the protein content and help bind water.
Spare ribs--A wholesale cut of the pork carcass the includes ribs 4-13 and the sternum.
Spent hen--A laying hen that has been culled from the laying flock.
Spices--Flavoring agents that are added to sausage products. They can be added in the form of whole spices, ground spice or oil.
Splitting platform--A platform in which the splitting saw operator stands that moves in concert with the carcass so that the splitting can be performed with out slowing the movement of the carcass through the slaughter procedure.
Spool joint--the joint between the carpals and the radius and ulna. This is the joint the front feet are removed in ovine animal older than 15 months.
Spring lamb--Lamb marketed in the spring of the year and prior to July 1. Most spring lambs come from the southwestern states were it is possible to begin lambing earlier in the year.
Stag--An male animal that has been castrated after it has developed secondary sex characteristics.
Staph aureus--A gram positive organism which produces and enterotoxin that causes a food borne intoxication. The onset is 2-4 hours and the duration is generally 1-2 days. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, retching, abdominal cramping, diarrhea. Usually subnormal temperature is found.
Starter culture--Addition of bacteria to a meat product to start the fermentation process.
Stationary phase--A phase in bacterial growth were there is no increase or decrease of the bacterial numbers.
Steamed bone meal--Bones that are ground and rendered to remove the fat and moisture, and the largely mineral remainder is reground.
Steer--A castrated male beef animal.
Sterilization--The process of killing all bacteria, spores and viruses in a meat product. If the product is sterilized it is considered to be self-stable.
Sternum--The breastbone, The bone that connected the ribs on the right and left sides together.
Stewing hen--A mature female chicken usually more than 10 months of age which is less tender and has a non-flexible breastbone tip. Sometime referred to as a spent hen.
Sticking--The process of exsanguination (bleeding) of the animal.
Stir fry--A method of cooking smal pieces of meat in a small amount of cooking oil over intense heat, usually in a wok. The meat is stirred constantly during cooking and is cooked for a brief time.
Stitch pump--A method of the introducing cure into a meat product by pumping the brine through a series of needles.
Stockinette-A cheesecloth sack that lots somewhat like a stocking in which a cured bone-in ham is placed to be cooked and smoked.
Stromal proteins--That insoluble in both aqueous and salt solutions. They are very fibrous in nature and are generally referred to as connective tissue.
Stuffer and/or linker--A machine used in sausage making to put the sausage batter into the casing then tie or twist it into links of various lengths.
Subprimal cut--Subdivisions of the wholesale or primal cuts that are made to facilitate handling or to reduce the variability within a single cut. Subprimal cuts are easier for the packer to vacuum bag and fit into a shipping box for transport to the retail market.
Sweet pickle cure--A curing brine that contains sugar.
Sweetbreads--A variety meat that is composed of the thymus from a young beef animal.
T tubules--see transverse tubules
Tallow--The rendered fat from a beef animal.
Talmadge Aiken Act--A act of Congress that allowed sate inspection services to perform federal inspection functions within their respective states.
Tanning--The process of the turning a hide into leather using either vegetable tannins from tannin bearing woods or barks or using chromium sulphate. The tanning process toughens the leather by crosslinking the collagen.
Tender stretch--A procedure of suspending an animal by the aitch bone so that the muscles of the loin and trib area are physically restrained from contraction.
Terminal markets--The location in which animals are sold to packers to be slaughter.
Thaw rigor--A condition cause when muscle is in a pre-rigor state when frozen so that when it is thaw an extensive contraction occurs causing the muscle to toughen.
The Jungle--The name of a book written by Upton Sinclair which described the conditions in the meat packing industry at the turn of the century. The book caused public awareness which lead to the passing of the Meat Inspection Act on June 10, 1906
Thiamine--A water soluble vitamin (Vit. B1) which functions as a coenzyme in carbohydrate metabolism. The best source of the thiamin in the diet is bread products and pork.
Thick filament--Myofilament that is primarily composed of myosin and is located in the A band of a sarcomere.
Thin filament--Myofilament that is primarily composed of actin and is located in the in the I band of a sarcomere.
Thoracic vertebrae--The thirteen vertebrae (14 or 15 in pigs) that are located in the thoracic region. Thoracic vertebrae are characterized by a long spinous process and are posterior to the cervical vertebrae and anterior to the lumbar vertebrae.
TOBEC--Total Body Electrical Conductivity. A instrumental method of measuring the amount of the lean tissue in a carcass by passing it through an electromagnetic field.
Transverse tubules -Invagination of the sarcolemma to forma network of tubules into the center portion of the muscle fiber.
Triceps brachii-- The large muscle found in the shoulder which fills the angle between the posterior border of the scapula and humerus. The major muscle found in the arm roast or chop.
Trichinae--A microscopic organism found in rats, dogs, cats, swine, bears, and humans. This parasite is a nematode worm sometimes found in pork muscle in the larva stage. Ingestion of insufficiently cooked infected pork can cause nausea, vomiting diarrhea, and muscle soreness.
Triglycerides--Ester of glycerol that contains three ester groups and either one, two, or three fatty acids attached to the ester group.
Tropomyosin--A regulatory protein found in the grooves of a f-actin filament. A strand of tropomyosin lies alongside each groove of the actin super helix, and a single molecule extends the length of the actin filament. During the resting state of muscle tropomyosin covers the binding sites of actin so that myosin is unable to bind.
Troponin--A regulatory protein found in the grooves of a f-actin filament with one Troponin molecule for every seven g-actin molecules. Troponin is responsible for regulating the interaction of the myosin and actin during contraction
Tumbler and massager--A machine that trumbles or massages meat to extract the myofibrillar proteins to improve their binding capabilities in boneless products.
U. S. Passed for cooking--Meat products that required to be cooked to a temperature 170F for 30 minutes before they are sold. This is to kill any parasites that may be present.
U. S. Condemned--Meat and poultry that has been inspected by USDA-FSIS and condemned under the regulations described in the Federal Code of Regulations and then marked as such.
U. S. Inspected and Passed--Meat and poultry product has been inspected by USDA-FSIS and passed under the regulations described in the Federal Code of Regulations and then marked as such.
U.S. Retained--Carcass, carcass part, viscera, or other product that has been held for further examination by a USDA-FSIS inspector to determine if it should be passed or condemned.
U.S. Suspect--Live animal that is suspected of having a disease or other condition that may require its condemnation, in whole or in part, and is subject to further examination by a USDA-FSIS inspector to determine it disposal.
Udder fat--The fat found in the udder region of a heifer. It is smooth in appearance which can indicate the sex of the animal.
UHT (Ultra High Temperature) milk--Milk that has been sterilized by heating it to a temperature of 130 to 150C for 2 to 87 seconds. After proper packaging this milk is shelf stable at room temperature but has intense cooked flavor.
Ulna--The larger and long bone found in the forearm which is fused to the radius in the cattle and lambs.
Ultrasound-- Ultrasonic sound waves that can be used to measure the subcutaneous fat thickness and loin-eye depth in both live animals and carcasses.
Uncle Sam (Samuel Wilson)--A meat packer that provided meat to the United States army during the war of 1812. He become a folk legend because he would stamp each barrel of the salted meat with U.S. Wilson. Troop thought it meant Uncle Sam Wilson and in 1857 a cartoonist developed a character of a gray bearded man with a stove pipe hat and red white and blue clothing.
Unsaturated fatty acids--Fatty that have at least one or more double between carbon atoms.
Uniform Product Code (UPC)--Computer bar code used to identify product. This would be a universal code for that product.
URMIS--Uniform retail meat identity standard. A systematic method of identifying retail cuts by their species wholesale and retail names.
Variety meats--Organs other than carcass meat that is used for human consumption.
Ventral (inferior)--Toward the plane of support. "Bottom side"
Vertical Suspension Dressing-- The slaughter system in which the animal is suspended by its' hind limbs throughout the slaughter process.
Vitamin B12--The compound cyanocolbalamin that can be supplied only from animal products and is important in the prevention of anemia.
Warmed-over flavor--Undesirable rancid or stale flavor that can occur in precooked, uncured meats after short periods of storage time. WOF is caused by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids and phosopholipids and iron-catalyzed lipid oxidation.
Water holding capacity--The ability of meat to retain its water during application of external forces such as cutting, heating grinding or pressing.
Wax picking--A process during poultry slaughter in which the bird is dipped in a wax substance (120F melting point) then chilled and wax is pulled from the birds with feathers, pinfeathers and scale encased in it, producing an attractively dressed product.
Weasand-- The German term for the esophagus, the tube leading from the throat to the stomach. Can be used as a sausgae casing.
Well done--Meat cooked to an internal temperature of 170F (75C).
Whey proteins--Proteins that are extracted from milk during cheese making. The are beta-lactoglobulin and alpha-lactalbumins.
Whole milk--Fluid milk that has not been modified in composition.
Wholesale cut--Portion of the carcass that has been subdivided sections (rib, loin, shoulder, round, etc) that can be sold or further subdivided into subprimal cuts.
Wholesome Meat Act--An act of Congress passed on December 15, 1967 which provided for a state-federal cooperative program, under which all intrastate slaughter and processing plants were placed under state supervision. The act provided for federal financial, technical and laboratory assistance in setting up state meat inspection programs equivalent to federal standards. Individual states were given two years in which to bring their meat inspection programs up to these standards
Wool--The soft wavy or curly hypertrophied undercoat made up of fibers of keratin molecules within a matrix and covered with minute scales.
Yearling tom/hen turkey--A fully mature male or female turkey (usually under 15 months of age) that is reasonably tender-meated and with somewhat smooth textured skin.
Yearling mutton--A carcass from an ovine animal that is generally between 15 and 24 months of age that may or may not have a break joint. Other factor such as rib maturity and lean texture and color will be used to make the determination.
Yeasts--Single-celled organisms that reproduce by budding. They are found in and on muscle foods but play only a small role in the ecology of these products.
Yield grades--A numerical representation of the approximate amount of the lean meat present in a carcass.
Young tom/hen turkey--A young male of female turkey (usually 5-7 months of age) that is tender-meated with soft pliable, smooth textured skin.
Z line--Sometime referred to as the Z disk. This structure bisects the I band and is composed of Z filaments which attach to the actin filament in the I band.
Zero tolerance--A philosophy in the inspection service to eliminate all possible health hazards in the food supply