Chris Calkins

Photo Chris Calkins

Professor of Animal Science

A213f Animal Science Building
Lincoln, NE 68583-0908
Phone: (402)472-6314
Fax: (402)472-6362
Email: ccalkins1@unl.edu

Mini CV

EDUCATION

  • Ph.D. 1981 Texas A&M University Animal Science (Meats)
  • M.S. 1978 Univ. of Tennessee Food Technology & Science (Meats)
  • B.S. 1976 Texas A&M University Animal Science

PREVIOUS POSITIONS HELD

  • Nebraska Beef Industry Professor of Animal Science (1995-2012)
  • University of Nebraska Animal Science* Professor (1993-present)
  • University of Nebraska Animal Science* Associate Professor (1986-1993)
  • University of Nebraska Animal Science* Assistant Professor (1981-1986)
  • University of Nebraska Animal Science* Research Fellow (1980-1981)
  • Texas A&M University Animal Science Grad. Teach. Asst. (1978-1980)
  • Texas A&M University Animal Science

*Includes a courtesy appointment with the UNL Department of Food Science and Technology

Honors and Awards:

  • 2104 American Society of Animal Science Animal Industry Service Award
  • 2012  University of Nebraska IDEA Award -- Innovation, Development and Engagement
  • 2011 American Society of Animal Science Meat Research Award
  • 2011 American Meat Science Distinguished Research Award
  • 2010 Lake Stevens High School Hall of Fame
  • 2009 Educator of the Year --North American Meat Processors Association
  • 2007 Fellow, American Meat Science Association
  • 2007 Invited speaker, International Congress of Meat Science and Technology, China
  • 2007 K.C. Wong Invited Lecture - Nanjing Agricultural University, China
  • 2007 North American Meat Processors - College of Experts
  • 2006 University Parents Association Certificate of Recognition for Contribution to Students 
  • 2005 Endowed Chair - Nebraska Beef Catle Professor of Animal Science, NE Cattlemen Fndn. (renewed)
  • 2005 Invited speaker, International Congress of Meat Science and Technology, U.S.
  • 2004 International Meat Secretariat Prize for Meat Science and Technology
  • 2004 Omtvedt Innovation Award
  • 2002 Named "Today's Pioneer" in first ever class by NU Administration - 1 of 2 from IANR
  • 2002 Nebraska Cattlemen Industry Service Award
  • 2002 Two Awesome Advisor Awards, Burr Hall ACE (Achievement, Commitment, Excellence) program
  • 2001 Member, Phi Beta Delta, NE Chapter - Honor Society for International Scholars
  • 2000 Endowed Chair - Nebraska Beef Cattle Professor of Animal Science, NE Cattlemen Fndn. (renewed)
  • 2000 Gamma Delta Sigma Research Award
  • 2000 Prime Promoter Award, Nebraska Beef Council
  • 1999 Signal Service Award, American Meat Science Association
  • 1996 President, American Meat Science Association
  • 1995 Endowed Chair - Nebraska Beef Cattle Professor of Animal Science, NE Cattlemen Fndn.
  • 1995 ESCOP Leadership Training Internship, Ag. Research Div., July 1995 1994 Teacher Fellow, Natl. Assoc. Colleges & Teachers of Ag.
  • 1993 Chair, Reciprocal Meat Conference of the American Meat Science Association
  • 1992 Univ. NE Parents Assoc. Recognition Award for Contribution to Students
  • 1991-1993 Executive Board, American Meat Science Association
  • 1990 Nat'l. Assoc. Colleges & Teachers of Ag., Teaching Award of Merit, Univ. of NE
  • 1990 Kappa Delta Professor Appreciation Dinner
  • 1989 Nebraska Pork Producers Association, Booster Award
  • 1989 Toastmaster Speech Awards - first in Club and Area contests, second in District contest
  • 1980 European Meeting of Meat Research Workers, Graduate Student Travel Award

PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES

  • National Cattlement's Beef Association - Beef Innovations Group
  • Institute for Food and Agriculture Alberta, Canada - Industry Advisory Board for Value-Added Meats Program
  • USDA - Ag. Marketing Service - Instrument grading and tenderness committee
  • Numerous invited presentations to regional and national organizations
  • Invited presentations in Uruguay, Argentina, Mexico, Costa Rica, China, Canada, and England

PROFESSIONAL SOCIETY MEMBERSHIPS

  • American Meat Science Association
  • Institute of Food Technologists
  • American Society of Animal Science

RESEARCH INTERESTS

  • Instrument grading for beef tenderness
  • Effect of distillers grains on beef quality
  • Characterization of muscle properties
  • The value of beef sensory traits
  • Beef enhancement strategies
  • Effect of production systems on beef palatability

SELECTED PUBLICATIONS

L. S. Senaratne, C. R. Calkins, A. S de Mello, Jr., S. Pokharel, and J. B. Hinkle. 2010. Mapping of Intramuscular Tenderness and Muscle Fiber Orientation of Muscles in the Beef Round. J. Anim. Sci. 88:3084-3106.

G.A. Sullivan and C.R. Calkins. 2010. Application of exogenous enzymes to beef muscle of high and low-connective tissue. Meat Sci. 85:730-734.

C.L. Lorenzen, C.R. Calkins, M.D. Green, R.K. Miller, J.B. Morgan and B.E. Wasser. 2010. Efficacy of performing Warner-Bratzler and slice shear force on the same beef steak following rapid cooking. Meat Sci. 85:792-794.

C. K. Yong, Kent M. Eskridge, Chris R. Calkins and Wendy J. Umberger. 2010. Assessing consumer preferences for rib-eye steak characteristics using confounded factorial conjoint choice experiments. J. of Muscle Foods. 21(2):224-242.

Kim YN, Giraud DW, Masrizal MA, Hamouz FL, Watanabe K, Schnepf MI, de Mello AS, Erickson GE, Calkins CR, Driskell JA. 2010. Effect of cooking method, distiller's grains, and vitamin E supplementation on the vitamin content of value cuts from beef steers fed wet distiller's grains plus solubles and supplemental vitamin E. J. Food Sci. 75 (2):C166-C172.

Judy A. Driskell, Young-Nam Kim, David W. Giraud, Fayrene L. Hamouz, Amilton S. de Mello, Jr., Galen E. Erickson, Chris R. Calkins. 2010. Vitamin and mineral content of value cuts from beef steers fed distiller's grains. J. Food Comp. Anal. (In press).

A.S. Mello, Jr., B.E. Jenschke, L.S. Senaratne, T.P. Carr, G. E. Erickson, and C.R. Calkins. 2011. Finishing diets containing wet distillers grains plus solubles affect beef quality of yearling steers. Meat Sci. (Submitted).

Jenkins, K.H., J. T. Vasconcelos, J. B. Hinkle, S. A. Furman, A. S. de Mello, Jr., L. S. Senaratne, S. Pokharel, and C. R. Calkins. Evaluation of performance, carcass characteristics, and sensory attributes of beef from finishing steers fed field peas. J. Anim. Sci.

G. A. Sullivan and C. R. Calkins. 2010. Ranking Beef Muscles for Warner-Bratzler Shear Force and Trained Sensory Panel Rating. J. Food Quality (Submitted).

Jenschke, B. E., J. R. Benton, C. R. Calkins, T. P. Carr, K. M. Eskridge, T. J. Klopfenstein, and G. E. Erickson. 2008. Chemical and sensory properties of beef of known source and finished on wet distillers grains in addition to varying types and levels of roughage. J. Anim. Sci. 86:949-959.

Calkins, C.R. and J.M Hodgen. 2007. A Fresh Look at Meat Flavor. Meat Sci. 77:63-80.

James, J. M. and C. R. Calkins. 2008. The influence of cooking rate and holding time on beef chuck and round flavor. Meat Sci. 78:429-437.

Feuz, D. M., W. J. Umberger and C. R. Calkins. 2007. "The Potential for Canadian Branded Beef Steaks in the U.S. Market: Results from an Experimental Auction.", Current Agriculture, Food & Resource Issues 8:16-27.

Hamling, A. E., B. E. Jenschke, and C. R. Calkins. 2008. Effects of dark storage and retail display on beef chuck and round muscles enhanced with ammonium hydroxide, salt, and carbon monoxide. J. Anim. Sci. 86: 972-981.

Jenschke, B. E., B. Swedberg, and C. R. Calkins. 2008. Tenderness, sensory, and color attributes of two muscles from the M. Quadriceps femoris when fabricated using a modified hot boning technique. J. Anim. Sci. jas.2007-0524v1-20070524.

Yong, Eskridge, Calkins. 2008. Assessing consumer preferences for rib-eye steak characteristics using confounded factorial conjoint choice experiments. J. Musc. Foods (In press).

B.E. Jenschke, J.M. James, K.J. Vander Pol, T.J. Klopfenstein and C.R. Calkins. 2007. Wet distillers grains plus solubles do not increase liver-like off-flavors in cooked beef from yearling steers. J. Musc. Foods. 18:341-348.

P. S. Brewer, J. M. James, C. R. Calkins, R. M. Rasby, T. J. Klopfenstein, and R. V. Anderson. 2007. Carcass traits and M. longissimus lumborum palatability attributes of calf- and yearling-finished steers. J. Anim. Sci. 85:1239-1246.

A. M. Stelzleni, L. E. Patten, D. D. Johnson, C. R. Calkins, and B. L. Gwartney. 2007. Benchmarking carcass characteristics and muscles from commercially identified beef and dairy cull cow carcasses for Warner-Bratzler shear force and sensory attributes. J. Anim. Sci. 85:2631-2638.

L. E. Patten, J. M. Hodgen, A. M. Stelzleni, C. R. Calkins, D. D. Johnson, and B. L. Gwartney. 2008. Chemical properties of cow and beef muscles: Benchmarking the differences and similarities. J. Anim. Sci. jas.2007-0478v1.

STATION BULLETINS

Amilton S. de Mello Jr., Chris R. Calkins, Kanae Watanabe, Lasika S. Senaratne, Timothy P. Carr, Galen E. Erickson, and Judy A. Driskell. 2010. Fatty Acid Profile of Beef from Steers fed Wet Distillers Grains plus Solubles (WDGS) and Vitamin E. Nebraska Beef Cattle Report. P. 97-98.

Amilton S. de Mello Jr., Kanae Watanabe, Chris R. Calkins, Lasika S. Senaratne, Timothy P. Carr, and Galen E. Erickson. 2010. Effects of Feeding Wet Distillers Grains plus Solubles and Vitamin E on Beef Tenderness and Color Under Different Packaging Systems. Nebraska Beef Cattle Report. P. 99-101.

Lasika S. Senaratne, Chris R. Calkins, Amilton S. de Mello, Jr., Galen E. Erickson. 2010. Wet Distillers Grains Deit Supplemented with Vitamin E Affect Sensory Attributes of Beef m. longissimus lumborum. Nebraska Beef Cattle Report. P. 101-103.

Lasika S. Senaratne, Chris R. Calkins, Amilton S. de Mello Jr., and Galen E. Erickson. 2010. Wet Distillers Grains Diets Supplemented with Vitamin E Alter the Mineral Composition of Beef m. longissimus lumborum and m. psoas major. Nebraska Beef Cattle Report. P. 104-106.

J. B. Hinkle, J. T. Vasconcelos, S. A. Furman, A. S. de Mello, Jr., L. S. Senaratne, S. Pokharel, and C. R. Calkins. 2010. Sensory Attributes of Beef from Steers Fed Field Peas. Nebraska Beef Cattle Report. P. 107-108.

Lasika S. Senaratne, Chris R. Calkins, Amilton S. de Mello Jr., Jeremey B. Hinkle, and Siroj Pokharel. 2010. Intramuscular Tenderness Mapping and Muscle Fiber Directions of Small Muscles in the Beef Round. Nebraska Beef Cattle Report. P. 109-112.

Chris R. Calkins, Amilton S. de Mello Jr., Lasika S. Senaratne, and Kanae Watanabe. 2010. Alternative Muscles for Traditional Japanese and Korean Beef Recipes. Nebraska Beef Cattle Report. P. 112-114.

Siroj Pokharel, Chris R. Calkins, Amilton S. de Mello, Jr., Lasika S. Senaratne, Jeremey B. Hinkle. 2010. Steak-Quality Meat from the Beef Heel. Nebraska Beef Cattle Report. P. 115-116.

Siroj Pokharel, Chris R. Calkins, Amilton S. de Mello Jr., Lasika S. Senaratne, Jeremey B. Hinkle, Timothy P. Carr, and Galen E. Erickson. 2011. Effects of feeding high levels of wet distillers grains and straw on beef quality. Nebraska Beef Cattle Report. MP 94:92-95.

Asia L. Haack, Amilton S. de Mello Jr., Siroj Pokharel, Jerilyn Hergenreder, Kim Varnold, Chris R. Calkins, Galen E. Erickson, Timothy P. Carr, D. Dwain Johnson. 2011. Low-fat wet distillers grains and beef quality. 2011 Nebraska Beef Cattle Report. MP 94:96-99.

Lasika S. Senaratne, Chris R. Calkins, Judson T. Vasconcelos, Amilton S. de Mello, Jr., M.A. Andersen, Stephanie A. Furman, Siroj Pokharel. 2011. Effects of synthetic antioxidants on shelf life of m. psoas major and m. triceps brachii muscles from beef fed wet distillers grains. 2011 Nebraksa Beef cattle Report. MP 94:103-104.

Lasika S. Senaratne, Chris R. Calkins, Amilton S. de Mello, Jr., Siroj Pokharel, and Jeremey B. Hinkle. 2011. Intramuscular tendernss and muscle fiber orientation of beef round muscles. 2011 Nebraska Beef Cattle Report. MP 94:105-108.

Kimberly A. Varnold, Chris R. Calkins, B. Lynn Gordon, and Wendy L. Umberger. 2011. Marketing source-verified beef to restaurant patrons. 2011 Nebraska Beef Cattle Report. MP 94:109-111.

JOURNAL ARTICLES


K. Varnold, C. Calkins, B. Gordon, W. Umberger. 2010. Marketing source-verified beef to restaurant patrons. Proc. Reciprocal Meat Conf. p. 42.

S. Pokharel, C. Calkins, A. de Mello, JR., L. Senaratne, J. Hinkle, T. Carr, and G. Erickson. 2010. Feeding High Levels of Wet Distillers Grains and Straw Increases Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Decreases Oxidative Stability of Beef. Proc. Recip. Meat Conf. p. 57-58.

L. Senaratne, C. Calkins, J. Vasconcelos, A. de Mello, Jr., M. Andersen, S. Furman, S. Pokharel, J. Hinkle, K. Varnold, J. Hergenreder. 2010. Effects of feeding wet distillers grains plus solubles supplemented with synthetic antioxidant, ethoxyquin, on discoloration and lipid oxidation in beef Psoas major and Triceps brachii Muscles. Proc. Reciprocal Meat Conf. p. 58.

Kim Cluff, Govindarajan Konda Naganathan, Jeyamkondan Subbiah, Chris Calkins, and Ashok Samal. 2010. Pork Tenderness Evaluation using Optical Scattering with Near-infrared (NIR) Hyperspectral Imaging. Paper 1009905. Amer. Soc. Ag. Biological Engineers annual mtg.

J. B. Hinkle, C. R. Calkins, A. S. de Mello, Jr., L. S. Senaratne, and S. Pokharel. 2010. Acid marination for tenderness enhancement of the beef round. Midwest Section, American Society of Animal Science. J. Anim. Sci. 88 (Supp. 3):73.

A. S. de Mello, Jr., B. E. Jenschke, L. S. Senaratne, T. P. Carr, G. E. Erickson, and C. R. Calkins. 2010. Feeding Modified Distillers Grains plus Solubles to Cattle Affects the Fatty Acid Profile of Beef. Midwest Section, American Society of Animal Science. J. Anim. Sci. 88 (Supp. 3):75.

S. Pokharel, C. R. Calkins, A. S. de Mello, Jr., L. S. Senaratne, J. B. Hinkle, T. P. Carr, and G. E. Erickson. 2010. Effects of Feeding High Levels of Wet Distillers Grains and Straw on Lipid Oxidation and Color Stability of Beef. Midwest Section, American Society of Animal Science. J. Anim. Sci. 88 (Supp. 3):82.

L. S. Senaratne, C. R. Calkins, A. S. de Mello, Jr., S. Pokharel, and J. B. Hinkle. 2010. Mapping of Intramuscular Tenderness and Muscle Fiber Orientation of Major Muscles in the Beef Round. Midwest Section, American Society of Animal Science. J. Anim. Sci. 88 (Supp. 3):75.

Govindarajan Konda Naganathan, Kim Cluff, Jeyamkondan Subbiah, Ashok Samal, Carol Lorenzen and Chris Calkins. 2010. An on-line hyperspectral imaging system for tenderness-based grading of beef. Abstract presented at 2010 Mid-Central Conference of Amer. Society of Ag. and Biological Engineers.

L. S. Senaratne, C. R. Calkins, J. T. Vasconcelos, A. S. de Mello, Jr., M. A. Andersen, S. A. Furman, and S. Pokharel. 2010. Shelf Life of Meat from Beef Fed Antioxidant and Wet Distillers Grains. Internat. Congress Meat Sci. Technol., Jeju, South Korea.

A. Haack, C. Calkins, A. de Mello Jr., S. Pokharel, L. Senaratne, J. Hergenreder, K. Varnold, T. Carr, G. Erickson, D. Johnson. 2011. Low-fat Wet Distillers Grains and Beef Quality. Midwest Section, American Society of Animal Science. J. Anim. Sci. 89 (Supp. 3):(Submitted).

K. Varnold, A. Haack, J. Hergenreder, S. Pokharel, L. Senaratne, A. Pesta, G. Erickson, C. Calkins. 2011. Corn Distiller′s Solubles Does Not Affect Beef Quality. Midwest Section, American Society of Animal Science. J. Anim. Sci. 89 (Supp. 3):(Submitted).

CHAPTERS IN BOOKS


Calkins, Chris R. and D. Dwain Johnson. 2009. Characterizing Muscle Properties to Develop Muscle-Specific Intervention Strategies and Improve Meat Cuts for the Consumer. In: Improving the Sensory and Nutritional Quality of Fresh Meat. Joseph P. Kerry and David Ledward, Eds. Woodhead Publishing, Inc., Cambridge, UK. p. 605-627. Woodhead Publishing ISBN 978-1-84569-343-5 (book); 978-1-84569-543-9 (e-book).

Jennie M. Hodgen and Chris R. Calkins. 2011. Red Meat Flavor. For publication as a chapter in Food Flavors: Chemical, Sensory and Technological Properties. CRC Press - Taylor & Francis, LLC. (In Press).


PATENTS PENDING

Subbiah.J., C. Calkins, and A. Samal. 2008. SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR ANALYZING MATERIAL PROPERTIES USING HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGING. United States Patent Application. 2008019908.

Subbiah, J., C. Calkins, A.K. Samal, and G.K. Naganathan. 2010. SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR ANALYZING PROPERTIES OF MEAT USING MULTISPECTRAL IMAGING. International patent application No. PCT/US2010/020683.